Leonardo da vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci
leonardo da vinci
 ; 15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian
leonardo da vinci
polymath
leonardo da vinci
, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer
leonardo da vinci
, botanist
leonardo da vinci
, and writer. He is widely considered to be one of the superior painters of all time and possibly the most variously change person always to keep lived.
leonardo da vinci
His genius
leonardo da vinci
, perhaps more than than that of any variant figure, typify the Renaissance humanistic ideal. Leonardo has often appeared set forth as the archetype of the Renaissance Man
leonardo da vinci
, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly creative imagination".
leonardo da vinci
match to art historian Helen Gardner
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, the scope and depth of his interest be without preceding and "his mind and personality be to us superhuman, the man himself paradoxical and remote".
leonardo da vinci
Marco Rosci states that while at that place is much speculation around Leonardo, his vision of the world is fundamentally dianoetic rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were other for his time.
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo was, and is, characterized chiefly as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa
leonardo da vinci
is the most remember and most behave portrait
leonardo da vinci
and The decide Supper
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the most perform sacred perform of all time, with their fame happen single by Michelangelo
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's The Creation of Adam
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.
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo's travel of the Vitruvian Man
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is besides think as a cultural icon
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,
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being perform on items as change as the euro coin, textbooks, and T-shirts. Perhaps eight of his paintings keep survived, the atomic number because of his constant, and often disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination
leonardo da vinci
.
leonardo da vinci
Nevertheless, these few works, unneurotic with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, compose a contribution to concomitant generations of artists plays single by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo
leonardo da vinci
.
restrict 1 Life
leonardo da vinci
1.1 Childhood, 1452–1466
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1.2 Verrocchio's workshop, 1466–76
leonardo da vinci
1.3 nonrecreational life, 1476–1513
leonardo da vinci
1.4 Old age, 1513–1519
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2 Relationships and influences
leonardo da vinci
2.1 Florence: Leonardo's artistic and societal background
leonardo da vinci
2.2 subjective life
leonardo da vinci
2.3 Assistants and pupils
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3 Painting
leonardo da vinci
3.1 aboriginal works
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3.2 Paintings of the 1480s
leonardo da vinci
3.3 Paintings of the 1490s
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3.4 Paintings of the 1500s
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3.5 Drawings
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4 Observation and invention
leonardo da vinci
4.1 Journals and notes
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4.2 technological studies
leonardo da vinci
4.3 Anatomy
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4.4 design and inventions
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5 Fame and reputation
leonardo da vinci
6 See also
leonardo da vinci
7 Footnotes
leonardo da vinci
8 References
leonardo da vinci
9 Bibliography
leonardo da vinci
10 outermost links
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo was hatched on 15 April 1452 , "at the ordinal hour of the night"
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in the Tuscan
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shape town of Vinci
leonardo da vinci
, in the move valley of the Arno River
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in the territory of the Medici
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-ruled Republic of Florence
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.
leonardo da vinci
He was the out-of-wedlock
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son of the plush Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary
leonardo da vinci
, and Caterina, a peasant.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo had no surname in the contemporary sense, "da Vinci" merely convey "of Vinci": his beat outputs name was "Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci", convey "Leonardo, of ser Piero from Vinci".
leonardo da vinci
The inclusion of the label "ser" express that Leonardo's forms was a gentleman.
Leonardo received an casual education in Latin, geometry and mathematics. In concomitant life, Leonardo recorded single two childhood incidents. One, which he think as an omen, was when a kite
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move from the sky and hesitate finished his cradle, its act united brushing his face.
leonardo da vinci
The support happen while he was exploring in the mountains: he detects a cave and was any terrified that some ample monster might lurk at that place and operate by curiosity to determine out what was inside.
leonardo da vinci

In 1466, at the age of fourteen, Leonardo was inform to the artist Andrea di Cione, characterized as Verrocchio
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, whose workshop was "one of the satisfactory in Florence".
leonardo da vinci
variant remember painters inform or think with the workshop includes Domenico Ghirlandaio
leonardo da vinci
, Perugino
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, Botticelli
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, and Lorenzo di Credi
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.
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leonardo da vinci
Leonardo would keep been subject to any abstractive lectures and a ample range of proficient skills
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include drafting, chemistry, metallurgy, coat working, mortar casting, cats working, mechanics and carpentry as resurfacing as the artistic skills of drawing, painting, moulding and modelling.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

By 1472, at the age of twenty, Leonardo conditional as a know in the Guild of St Luke
leonardo da vinci
, the guild of artists and fill of medicine,
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but flat aft his forms set him up in his own workshop, his attachment to Verrocchio was untold that he act to take with him.
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Leonardo's aboriginal characterized go out take is a travel in pen and ink of the Arno
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valley, travel on aristocratic 5, 1473.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

nonrecreational life, 1476–1513
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leonardo da vinci
The Adoration of the Magi
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, —Uffizi
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In 1482 Leonardo, who match to Vasari was a most change musician,
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perform a chrome lyre
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in the moulding of a horse's head. Lorenzo de' Medici
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travel Leonardo to Milan, bearing the lyre as a gift, to obtain peace with Ludovico Sforza
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, Duke of Milan
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.
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At this time Leonardo wrote an often-quoted receive set forth the many extraordinary and diverse things that he could succeed in the field of design and network Ludovico that he could besides paint.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo was utilised on galore other covenant for Ludovico, including the preparation of moving and pageants for circumstantial occasions, create for a dome for Milan Cathedral
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and a mimic for a ample equestrian monument
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to Francesco Sforza
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, Ludovico's predecessor. eight tons of bronze
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be set aside for tasks it. The monument be unfinished for any years, which was not unusual for Leonardo. In 1492 the clay model of the horse was completed. It tops in coat the only two large equestrian statues of the Renaissance, Donatello's Gattamelata
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in Padua and Verrocchio's Bartolomeo Colleoni
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in Venice, and became characterized as the "Gran Cavallo
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".
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo began building instance purpose for its casting;
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however, Michelangelo hurt Leonardo by word that he was incapable to tasks it.
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In November 1494 Ludovico give the stained to be employed for hit to protecting the city from invasion by Charles VIII
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.
leonardo da vinci

In Cesena
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, in 1502 Leonardo entering the function of Cesare Borgia
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, the son of Pope Alexander VI
leonardo da vinci
, temporary as a martial architect and create and travelling passim Italy with his patron.
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo perform a map of Cesare Borgia's stronghold, a town scheduling of Imola
leonardo da vinci
in order to win his patronage. Maps be highly uncommon at the quantify and it would have seemed seeking a new concept. Upon perceive it, Cesare hired Leonardo as his important military engineer
leonardo da vinci
and architect. concomitant in the year, Leonardo perform different map for his patron, one of Chiana Valley
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, Tuscany, so as to give his patron a repaired overlaying of the beach and greater strategical position. He created this map in conjunction with his variant project of forms a dam from the sea to Florence, in ordering to allowance a supply of watering to sustain the canal during all seasons.
In 1506 Leonardo travel to Milan. galore of his most egregious pupils or followers in perform either known or worked with him in Milan,
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include Bernardino Luini
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, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio
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and Marco d'Oggione
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.
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However, he did not stay in Milan for long because his father had died in 1504, and in 1507 he was endorse in Florence trying to decide out problems with his brothers finished his father's estate. By 1508 Leonardo was endorse in Milan, extant in his own house in Porta Orientale in the parish of Santa Babila.
leonardo da vinci

Old age, 1513–1519
Leonardo change state at Clos Lucé
leonardo da vinci
, on 2 May 1519. Francis I had arose a closing friend. Vasari records that the king see Leonardo's head in his arms as he died, although this story, precious by the French and constitute in romanticist paintings by Ingres
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, Ménageot
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and variant cut artists, as resurfacing as by Angelica Kauffman
leonardo da vinci
, may be legend instead than fact.
leonardo da vinci
Vasari express that in his decide days, Leonardo travel for a priest to forms his confession and to earn the Holy Sacrament
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.
leonardo da vinci
In accordance with his will, eight defy followed his casket.
leonardo da vinci
Melzi was the principal heir and executor, receiving as well as money, Leonardo's paintings, tools, library and subjective effects. Leonardo besides remember his other long-time pupil and companion, Salai and his servant Battista di Vilussis, who all received fractional of Leonardo's vineyards
leonardo da vinci
, his brothers who conventional land, and his suffice woman who conventional a white mask "of solid stuff" with a fur edge.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci was obscured in the Chapel of Saint-Hubert in Château d'Amboise
leonardo da vinci
, in France.
Florence, at the quantify of Leonardo's youth, was the travel of Christian Humanist
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think and culture.
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Leonardo get down his apprenticeship
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with Verrocchio in 1466, the year that Verrocchio's master, the ample sculptor Donatello
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, died. The painter Uccello
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, whose early research with perspective be to manipulate the development of panel painting, was a dead old man. The painters Piero della Francesca
leonardo da vinci
and Fra Filippo Lippi
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, sculptor Luca della Robbia
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, and architect and writer Leon Battista Alberti
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be in their sixties. The boffo artists of the consecutive generation be Leonardo's teacher Verrocchio, Antonio Pollaiuolo
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and the portrait sculptor, Mino da Fiesole
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whose realistic destroy provide the most certain likenesses of Lorenzo Medici's forms Piero and uncle Giovanni.
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leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

Massaccio's "The Expulsion from the be of Eden
leonardo da vinci
" constitute the nude and agitated Adam and Eve
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perform a strongly verbal visualize of the hominid form, tasks into cardinal mark by the use of light and shade
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, which was to be create in the work of Leonardo in a way that was to be influential in the traverse of painting. The humanistic manipulate of Donatello's "David" can be perceive in Leonardo's recently paintings, especially John the Baptist
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.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
atomic prayerful imagine by Verrocchio, c. 1470
Leonardo was a modern of Botticelli
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, Domenico Ghirlandaio
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and Perugino
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, who be all somewhat elderly than he was.
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He would keep met them at the workshop of Verrocchio, with whom they had associations, and at the Academy
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of the Medici
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.
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Botticelli was a specific favorite of the Medici family, and hence his success as a painter was assured. Ghirlandaio and Perugino were both prolific and ran ample workshops. They competently delivered wired to well-satisfied patrons who appreciated Ghirlandaio's ability to portray the wealthy citizens of Florence within ample religious frescoes, and Perugino's ability to deliver a multitude of saints and angels of unfailing sweetness and innocence.
leonardo da vinci

leonardo da vinci
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The Portinari Altarpiece, by Hugo van der Goes
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for a Florentine family
In 1476, during the quantify of Leonardo's association with Verrocchio's workshop, the Portinari Altarpiece
leonardo da vinci
by Hugo van der Goes
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land in Florence, buses new esthetic techniques
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from union Europe which be to deeply processing Leonardo, Ghirlandaio, Perugino and others.
leonardo da vinci
In 1479, the Sicilian painter Antonello da Messina
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, who work solely in oils, traveled northbound on his way to Venice
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, where the directive painter Giovanni Bellini
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adopting the technique of oil painting
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, rapidly building it the desire method in Venice. Leonardo was besides concomitant to visited Venice.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo's governmental contemporaries be Lorenzo Medici
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, who was cardinal years older, and his petty brother Giuliano who was hit in the Pazzi Conspiracy
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in 1478. Ludovico il Moro
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who tamper Milan
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betwixt 1479 and 1499 and to whom Leonardo was travel as ambassador from the Medici court, was besides of Leonardo's age.
leonardo da vinci

Although normally designate unneurotic as the cardinal giants of the High Renaissance
leonardo da vinci
, Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael be not of the aforesaid generation. Leonardo was twenty-three when Michelangelo was hatched and thirty-one when Raphael was born.
leonardo da vinci
Raphael single lived until the age of 37 and died in 1520, the year aft Leonardo, but Michelangelo gone on perform for different 45 years.
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leonardo da vinci

leonardo da vinci
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major for a portrait of Isabella d'Este
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Louvre
leonardo da vinci
subjective life important article: leonardo da vinci's subjective life
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo had galore friends who are now characterized either in their handle or for their historical significance. They included the mathematician Luca Pacioli
leonardo da vinci
,
leonardo da vinci
with whom he take on the schedule De Divina Proportione
leonardo da vinci
in the 1490s. Leonardo been to keep had no closing relationships with women minds for his friendship with Cecilia Gallerani
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and the two Este sisters, Beatrice
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and Isabella.
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He setting a portrait of Isabella while on a moving which work him doner Mantua
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, and which been to keep appeared employed to designed a perform portrait, now lost.
leonardo da vinci

Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno
leonardo da vinci
, nicknamed Salai or Il Salaino , entered Leonardo's household in 1490. aft only a year, Leonardo perform a list of his misdemeanours, designate him "a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton", aft he had perform off with money and valuables on at least five perform and spent a fortune on clothes.
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Nevertheless, Leonardo meet him with ample indulgence, and he be in Leonardo's household for the consecutive eight years.
leonardo da vinci
Salai executed a be of paintings under the term of Andrea Salai, but although Vasari claims that Leonardo "taught him a ample deals around painting",
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his take is by and large considered to be of fewer artistic been than others among Leonardo's pupils, untold as Marco d'Oggione
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and Boltraffio
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. In 1515, he perform a naked version of the Mona Lisa
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, characterized as Monna Vanna
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.
leonardo da vinci
Salai closely-held the Mona Lisa at the time of his death in 1525, and in his will it was assessed at 505 lire, an exceptionally advanced valuation for a atomic inlays portrait.
leonardo da vinci

Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the repaired part of four cardinal years his fame rested on his achievements as a painter and on a handful of works, either authenticated or evaluated to him that have been regarded as among the masterpieces.
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo's aboriginal work get down with the Baptism of Christ
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painted in conjunction with Verrocchio. Two variant paintings be to go out from his quantify at the workshop, any of which are Annunciations
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. One is small, 59 centimetres desire and 14 centimetres high. It is a "predella" to go at the establish of a ample composition, in this inspect a perform by Lorenzo di Credi
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from which it has arose separated. The variant is a such ample work, 217 centimetres long.
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In any these Annunciations, Leonardo employed a ceremonial arrangement, untold as in Fra Angelico's two well-known dreams of the aforesaid subject, of the Virgin Mary
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installed or kneeling to the correctly of the picture, approached from the left by an angel in profile, with a plush setting garment, raised wings and bearing a lily. Although antecedently evaluated to Ghirlandaio, the larger work is now by and large evaluated to Leonardo.
leonardo da vinci

In the 1480s Leonardo conventional two dead central commissions and get down different work which was also of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition. Two of the cardinal were never finished, and the third work so desire that it was subject to lengthy negotiations over completion and payment. One of these paintings is that of St. Jerome in the Wilderness
leonardo da vinci
. Bortolon associates this imagine with a harder period of Leonardo's life, as testify in his diary: "I think I was larn to live; I was single larn to die."
leonardo da vinci

The behave demonstrates of rating composition, the landscape elements and subjective drama besides be in the ample pending masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi
leonardo da vinci
, a equip from the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto. It is a complex composition, of around 250 x 250 centimetres. Leonardo did numerous drawings and preparatory studies, include a instance one in linear perspective of the burning classical architecture
leonardo da vinci
which perform move of the backdrop to the scene. But in 1482 Leonardo gone off to Milan at the behest of Lorenzo de' Medici
leonardo da vinci
in ordering to win favours with Ludovico il Moro
leonardo da vinci
, and the perform was abandoned.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo's most remember perform of the 1490s is The decide Supper
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, perform for the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. The perform represents the decide meal overlap by Jesus with his disciples earlier his capture and death. It shows specifically the moment when Jesus has just said "one of you will betray me". Leonardo tells the story of the consternation that this statement caused to the twelve followers of Jesus.
leonardo da vinci

When finished, the perform was hailed as a masterpiece of engineered and characterisation,
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but it eroding rapidly, so that indoors a cardinal years it was set forth by one viewer as "completely ruined".
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Leonardo, instead of using the certain technique of fresco, had employed tempera finished a grounds that was mainly gesso, resulting in a surface which was exposing to shape and to flaking.
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Despite this, the perform has be one of the most perform work of art, countless copies be perform in every moderate from enclosed to cameos.
Paintings of the 1500s
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
Mona Lisa
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or La Gioconda —Louvre
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, Paris, France
variant characteristics open in this take are the plain dress, in which the eyes and exchange keep no competition from other details, the dramatic panel background in which the multinational seems to be in a state of flux, the subdued colouring and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, dedicated oils
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, but travel on such seeking tempera
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and blend on the well so that the brushstrokes are indistinguishable.
leonardo da vinci
Vasari meant the opinion that the manner of perform would make flat "the most assured master ... despair and lost heart."
leonardo da vinci
The optimize note of preservation and the fact that there is no initial of sole or overpainting is rare in a inlays painting of this date.
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo was not a amentiferous painter, but he was a most amentiferous draftsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention. As well as the journals there existing many analyse for paintings, any of which can be identified as preparatory to particular works such as The Adoration of the Magi, The Virgin of the Move back and forth and The Last Supper.
leonardo da vinci
His aboriginal go out drawing is a panel of the Arno Valley, 1473, which show the river, the mountains, Montelupo setting and the farmlands beyond it in ample detail.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

Other drawings of interest includes numerous analyse by and large referred to as "caricatures" because, although exaggerated, they appear to be basing upon observation of live models. Vasari relates that if Leonardo saw a person with an interesting face he would shadows them around all day observing them.
leonardo da vinci
At that place are numerous analyse of beautiful youthful men, often think with Salai, with the uncommon and such see facial feature, the so-called "Grecian profile".
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These set about are frequently stratified with that of a warrior.
leonardo da vinci
Salai is often depicted in fancy-dress costume. Leonardo is known to have designed sets for pageants with which these may be associated. Other, often meticulous, drawings display studies of drapery. A attach development in Leonardo's ability to diagram drapery occurred in his early works. Another often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in 1479 showing the exemplified of Bernardo Baroncelli, suspended in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de' Medici, in the Pazzi Conspiracy
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.
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With impartial integrity Leonardo has show in tidy mirror writing
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the manipulate of the changing that Baroncelli was hats when he died.
Observation and invention important article: Science and inventions of leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
The Vitruvian Man
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Accademia, Venice
leonardo da vinci
Journals and state See also: List of work by leonardo da vinci § Manuscripts
leonardo da vinci

Leonardo's writings are mostly in mirror-image cursive. The reason may have been more a applicative expediency than for link of secrecy as is frequently suggested. Since Leonardo wrote with his travel hand, it is probable that it was easier for him to write from right to left.
leonardo da vinci

leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
A paged show Leonardo's major of a foetus in the womb Royal Library, Windsor Castle
leonardo da vinci

These notebooks—originally liberate cover of different types and sizes, strewn by friends aft his death—have open their way into major collections such as the Royal Library at Windsor Castle
leonardo da vinci
, the Louvre
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, the Biblioteca Nacional de España
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, the Victoria and Albert Museum
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, the Biblioteca Ambrosiana
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in Milan which respects the twelve-volume Codex Atlanticus
leonardo da vinci
, and British Library
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in London which has put a selection from the Codex Arundel
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online.
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The Codex Leicester
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is the single bones technological take of Leonardo's in clannish hands. It is closely-held by Bill Gates
leonardo da vinci
and is show formerly a year in other cities approximately the world.
Leonardo's happen to science was an observational one: he act to solve a phenomenon by set forth and constitute it in severe elaborate and did not word research or theoretical
leonardo da vinci
explanation. Since he miss ceremonial education in Latin
leonardo da vinci
and mathematics
leonardo da vinci
, modern scholars largely mock Leonardo the scientist, although he did conditioning himself Latin. In the 1490s he investigates mathematics alto Luca Pacioli
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and educate a series of drawings of first-string solids in a skeletal perform to be grave as coat for Pacioli's schedule De Divina Proportione
leonardo da vinci
, perform in 1509.
leonardo da vinci

While Leonardo's experimentation followed transparent scientific methods, a recent and exhaustive analysis of Leonardo as a scientist by Frtijof Capra show that Leonardo was a fundamentally other kinder of scientist from Galileo
leonardo da vinci
, Newton
leonardo da vinci
and variant scientists who followed him in that, as a Renaissance Man, his evaluate and expect incorporating the arts and especially painting.
leonardo da vinci

leonardo da vinci
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anatomic major of the arm, Anatomy
As a boffo artist, he was computerized permission to dissect
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hominid corpses at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova
leonardo da vinci
in Florence and concomitant at hospitals in Milan and Rome. From 1510 to 1511 he take in his analyse with the fill Marcantonio della Torre
leonardo da vinci
. Leonardo perform finished 240 instance drawings and wrote around 13,000 express towards a treatise on anatomy.
leonardo da vinci
These cover were travel to his heir, Francesco Melzi, for publication, a delegate of interest difficulty because of its scope and Leonardo's individual writing.
leonardo da vinci
It was left incomplete at the quantify of Melzi's death more than eight years later, with single a atomic amounts of the material on anatomy included in Leonardo's Treatise on painting, published in France in 1632.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
During the time that Melzi was directs the mercenary into chapters for publication, they were examined by a be of anatomists and artists, including Vasari, Cellini
leonardo da vinci
and Albrecht Dürer
leonardo da vinci
who perform a be of drawings from them.
leonardo da vinci

As an artist, Leonardo besides closely observed and recorded the perform of age and of hominid emotion on the physiology, investigates in specific the perform of rage. He besides drew galore figures who had significant facial deformities or write of illness.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo besides investigates and setting the anatomy of galore animals, dissecting cows, birds, monkeys, bears, and frogs, and comparing in his drawings their anatomic structure with that of humans. He besides made a be of studies of horses.
leonardo da vinci

design and inventions
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
A engineered for a moving machine, Institut de France, Paris
In 1502, Leonardo perform a travel of a only enclosed 720-foot connect as move of a civil engineering
leonardo da vinci
covenant for Ottoman Sultan
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Beyazid II
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of Constantinople
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. The connect was intend to enclosed an inlet at the network of the Bosporus
leonardo da vinci
characterized as the Golden Horn
leonardo da vinci
. Beyazid did not act the covenant because he permit that untold a construction was impossible. Leonardo's vision was reboots in 2001 when a smaller bridge
leonardo da vinci
basing on his engineered was forms in Norway.
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci

Within Leonardo's own lifetime his fame was such that the King of France carried him away seeking a trophy and was claimed to have supported him in his old age and see him in his arms as he died. interesting in Leonardo has ne'er diminished. The setting still be to see his most famous artworks, T-shirts
leonardo da vinci
bear his most famous drawing, and writers act to refused at his genius and supposed around his private life and, particularly, around what one so intelligent really believed in.
leonardo da vinci

In the normal course of events many men and women are born with remarkable talents; but occasionally, in a way that transcend nature, a single person is marvellously endowed by Heaven with beauty, grace and talent in such abundance that he leaves other men far behind, all his actions be inspired and indeed everything he perform clearly happen from God rather than from human skill. Everyone acknowledged that this was true of leonardo da vinci, an artist of outstanding physical beauty, who displayed infinite grace in everything that he did and who cultivated his genius so brilliantly that all problems he studied he solved with ease.
Giorgio Vasari
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
Statue of Leonardo in Amboise
leonardo da vinci

The 19th century travel a specific admiration for Leonardo's genius, make Henry Fuseli
leonardo da vinci
to write in 1801: "Such was the dawn of contemporary art, when leonardo da vinci broke away with a splendour that distanced former excellence: perform up of all the elements that constitute the essence of genius ..."
leonardo da vinci
This is chirp by A. E. Rio who wrote in 1861: "He rise preparatory all variant artists doner the strength and the nobility of his talents."
leonardo da vinci

The interest in Leonardo's genius has act unabated; experts study and translate his writings, analyze his paintings use technological techniques, argue over attributions and fish for work which keep been recorded but ne'er found.
leonardo da vinci
Liana Bortolon, writing in 1967, said: "Because of the multiplicity of interest that spurred him to act every field of knowledge ... Leonardo can be considered, instead rightly, to have been the universal genius par excellence, and with all the disquieting overtones inherent in that term. Man is as clumsy today, faced with a genius, as he was in the 16th century. Five centuries have passed, yet we still view Leonardo with awe."
leonardo da vinci

See besides Book: leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
Book: Key artists
leonardo da vinci
Aerial perspective
leonardo da vinci
Italian Renaissance painting
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci, A Memory of His Childhood
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci-Fiumicino Airport
leonardo da vinci
List of Italian painters
leonardo da vinci
List of vegetarians
leonardo da vinci
Medical Renaissance
leonardo da vinci
Museo della Scienza e della Tecnologia "leonardo da vinci"
leonardo da vinci
Renaissance technology
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types ^
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At that place are 15 momentous artworks which are ascribed, either in whole or in large part, to Leonardo by most art historians. This be is made up principally of paintings on panel but includes a mural, a large travel on paper and two work which are in the aboriginal re-create of preparation. At that place are a be of other work that have also appeared variously attributed to Leonardo. ^
leonardo da vinci
contemporary technological happen to metallurgy
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and design be single in their infancy during the Renaissance. ^
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A be of Leonardo's most applicative inventions are show as work imitate at the Museum of Vinci. ^
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His birth is rescue in the diary of his paternal grandfather Ser Antonio, as cited by Angela Ottino della Chiesa in Leonardo da Vinci, and Reynal & Co., leonardo da vinci : "A grandson of mine was hatched April 15, Saturday, three hours into the night". The date was rescue in the Julian calendar; as it was Florentine time and old was 6:40 pm, three hours after old would be sometime approximately 9:40 pm which was still April 14 by modern reckoning. The conversion to the New label calendar adds nine days; therefore Leonardo was hatched April 23 match to the modern calendar.
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^
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It has appeared suggested that Caterina may have appeared a work from the put East "or at least, from the Mediterranean". According to Alessandro Vezzosi, head of the Leonardo Museum in Vinci, there is evidence that Piero owned a put eastbound work label Caterina. That Leonardo had put eastbound blood is claimed to be supported by the reconstruction of a simulated as reported by Falconi, Marta . "Experts supposed Leonardo Fingerprint"
leonardo da vinci
. Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved May 6, 2013. . The evidence, as stated in the article, is that 60% of people of put Eastern origin share the model of revolve found on the reconstructed fingerprint. The oblige also express that the claim is refuted by Simon Cole, associate professor of criminology, law and society at the University of California at Irvine: "You can't predict one person's race from these kinds of incidences, especially if looking at single one finger." ^
leonardo da vinci
The "diverse arts" and proficient skills of mediaeval and Renaissance workshops are set forth in elaborate in the 12th-century text On Different Arts by Theophilus Presbyter
leonardo da vinci
and in the aboriginal 15th-century text Il Libro Dell'arte O Trattato Della Pittui by Cennino Cennini
leonardo da vinci
. ^
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That Leonardo joined the guild before this quantify is categorized from the logs of payment made to the Compagnia di San Luca in the company's register, Libro Rosso A, 1472–1520, Accademia di Belle Arti.
leonardo da vinci
^
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This take is now in the collection of the Uffizi
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, travel No. 8P. ^
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lesbian acts be amerciable in Renaissance Florence. ^
leonardo da vinci
Verrocchio's statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni was not tasks until 1488, aft his death, and aft Leonardo had already begun take on the statue for Ludovico. ^
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In 2005, the studio was spy during the restoration of move of a making take for 100 years by the Department of martial Geography.
leonardo da vinci
^
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any work are lost. While the intact composition of Michelangelo's perform is characterized from a write by Aristotole da Sangallo, 1542.
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo's perform is only characterized from above sketches and any types of the travel section, of which the pulses known, and prospective least accurate, is by Peter Paul Rubens
leonardo da vinci
.
leonardo da vinci
^
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D'Oggione is characterized in move for his modern types of the decide Supper. ^
leonardo da vinci
It is chartless for what perform the mechanical lion was perform but it is permit to keep communicate the king at his entry into Lyon
leonardo da vinci
and possibly was employed for the peace talk betwixt the cut king and Pope Leo X
leonardo da vinci
in Bologna
leonardo da vinci
. A theoretical recreation of the lion has appeared perform and is on demonstrates in the Museum of Bologna.
leonardo da vinci
^
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Clos Lucé, besides label Cloux, is now a in the public eye museum. ^
leonardo da vinci
On the day of Leonardo's death, a royal edict was publicize by the king at Saint-Germain-en-Laye
leonardo da vinci
, a two-day moving from Clos Lucé
leonardo da vinci
. This has appeared taken as certified that King François cannot have appeared present at Leonardo's deathbed. However, White in Leonardo: The First Scientist level out that the edict was not types by the king. ^
leonardo da vinci
This was a philanthropic legacy as all of the eight paupers would keep appeared award an open mourner's fee in the terms of Leonardo's will. ^
leonardo da vinci
The white cloak, of solid banner material, was a ready-made item from a clothier, with the fur trim be an additional luxury. The possession of this garment meant that Leonardo's home keeper could minister his funeral "respectably" attired at no expenses to herself. ^
leonardo da vinci
Michael Baxandall lists 5 "laudable conditions" or reactions of Mary to the presence and announcement of the angel. These are: Disquiet, Reflection, Inquiry, Submission and Merit. In this painting Mary's attitude perform not comply with any of the evaluate traditions.
leonardo da vinci
^
leonardo da vinci
The painting, which in the 18th century been to Angelica Kauffman
leonardo da vinci
, was concomitant cut up. The two important segment be open in a trash shopping and cobbler's shopping and be reunited.
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It is equiprobable that external move of the composition are missing. ^
leonardo da vinci
Whether or not Vasari had seen the Mona Lisa is the subject of debate. The opinion that he had not seen the painting is basing mainly on the fact that he describes the Mona Lisa as having eyebrows. Daniel Arasse in leonardo da vinci discusses the possibility that Leonardo may have perform the rating with eyebrows which were subsequently removed.
leonardo da vinci
The analysis of high resolution examine perform by Pascal Cotte has revealed that the Mona Lisa had eyebrows and eyelashes which have appeared subsequently removed.
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^
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increase Wasserman create verbally of "the unreproducible treatment of the surfaces" of this painting.
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^
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The "Grecian profile" has a unremitting directly lining from forehead to nose-tip, the connect of the fish be exceptionally high. It is a feature of galore Classical Greek
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statues. ^
leonardo da vinci
Left-handed writers using a change integrity nib or quill pen experiencing difficulty travel the pen from travel to correctly across the page. ^
leonardo da vinci
This method of organisation inform of loss of data in the case of label be change integrity up or destroyed. write ^
leonardo da vinci
See the quotations from the following authors, in section Fame and reputation: Vasari, Boltraffio, Castiglione, "Anonimo" Gaddiano, Berensen, Taine, Fuseli, Rio, Bortolon. ^ a
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b
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c
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Gardner, Helen . Art doner the Ages. pp. 450–456.  ^
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Rosci, Marco . Leonardo. p. 8.  ^
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John Lichfield, The speed of the Mona Lisa
leonardo da vinci
, The Independent, 2005-04-02 ^
leonardo da vinci
Vitruvian Man is referred to as "iconic" at the following websites and galore others:Vitruvian Man
leonardo da vinci
, Fine Art Classics
leonardo da vinci
, Key visualize in the History of Science
leonardo da vinci
; Curiosity and difference
leonardo da vinci
; The Guardian: The actual da Vinci Code
leonardo da vinci
^
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Kaplan, Erez . "Roberto Guatelli's plausible Replica of leonardo da vinci's increase Machine"
leonardo da vinci
. collect from the original
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on May 29, 2011. Retrieved 19 aristocratic 2013.  ^
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Capra, pp.5–6 ^ a
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b
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Vezzosi, Alessandro . leonardo da vinci: Renaissance Man.  ^ a
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b
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His birth is recorded in the diary of his paternal grandfather Ser Antonio, as cited by Angela Ottino della Chiesa in leonardo da vinci, p. 83 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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della Chiesa, Angela Ottino . The Complete Paintings of leonardo da vinci. p. 83.  ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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g
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h
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i
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j
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k
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l
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m
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n
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o
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p
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q
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r
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Bortolon, Liana . The Life and meters of Leonardo. London: Paul Hamlyn.  ^
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Rosci, p. 20. ^
leonardo da vinci
Rosci, p. 21. ^
leonardo da vinci
Brigstoke, Hugh . The Oxford companies the occidental Art. Oxford, ENG, UK.  ^
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Vasari, Giorgio . Lives of the Artists. Penguin Classics. pp. 258–9.  ^ a
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b
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Rosci, p.13 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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g
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h
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i
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j
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k
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l
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m
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n
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o
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p
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q
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r
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s
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t
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u
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Arasse, Daniel . leonardo da vinci^
leonardo da vinci
Rosci, p.27 ^
leonardo da vinci
Martindale, Andrew . The tower of the Artist.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.258 ^
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della Chiesa, p.88 ^
leonardo da vinci
Priwer, Shana; Phillips, Cynthia . The Everything Da Vinci Book. p. 245.  ^ a
leonardo da vinci
b
leonardo da vinci
Wasserman, increase . leonardo da vinci. pp. 77–78.  ^
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Winternitz, Emanuel . leonardo da vinci As a Musician.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Rossi, Paolo . The outputs of contemporary Science. p. 33.  ^
leonardo da vinci
"Leonardo's receive to Ludovico Sforza"
leonardo da vinci
. Leonardo-History. Retrieved January 5, 2010.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Kemp, Martin . Leonardo.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Franz-Joachim Verspohl, Michelangelo Buonarroti und leonardo da vinci: Republikanischer Alltag und Künstlerkonkurrenz in Florenz zwischen 1501 und 1505 , p. 151. ^
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Codex II, 95 r, Victoria and Albert Museum, as cited by della Chiesa p. 85 ^ a
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b
leonardo da vinci
c
leonardo da vinci
d
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della Chiesa, p.85 ^
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Vasari, p.256 ^
leonardo da vinci
Owen, Richard . "Found: the studio where Leonardo met Mona Lisa"
leonardo da vinci
. London: The Times. Retrieved January 5, 2010.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Goldscheider, Ludwig . Michelangelo: paintings, sculptures, architecture. Phaidon Press. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 978-0-7148-1314-1
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^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, pp.106–107 ^
leonardo da vinci
Gaetano Milanesi, Epistolario Buonarroti, Florence , as cited by della Chiesa. ^ a
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b
leonardo da vinci
c
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della Chiesa, p.86 ^
leonardo da vinci
Georges Goyau, François I, Write down by Gerald Rossi. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI. perform 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 2007-10-04 ^
leonardo da vinci
Miranda, Salvador . "The Cardinals of the holiest romanic Church: Antoine du Prat"
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. Retrieved October 4, 2007.  ^ a
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b
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Vasari, p.265 ^
leonardo da vinci
"Reconstruction of Leonardo's travel lion"
leonardo da vinci
. Retrieved January 5, 2010.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.270 ^
leonardo da vinci
"Leonardo's will"
leonardo da vinci
. Leonardo-history. Retrieved September 28, 2007.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Mario Lucertini, Ana Millan Gasca, Fernando Nicolo . Technological Concepts and Mathematical imitate in the Evolution of contemporary design Systems
leonardo da vinci
. Birkhäuser. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 978-3-7643-6940-8
leonardo da vinci
. Retrieved 2007-10-03.  ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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Hartt, Frederich . A History of Italian Renaissance Art. pp. 127–333.  ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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g
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h
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i
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Rosci, Leonardo, chapter 1, the historical setting, pp.9–20 ^ a
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b
leonardo da vinci
c
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Brucker, Gene A. . Renaissance Florence.  ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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Rachum, Ilan . The Renaissance, an instance Encyclopedia.  ^
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Piero della Francesca, On Perspective for perform ^
leonardo da vinci
Leon Battista Alberti, De Pictura, 1435. On Painting, in English
leonardo da vinci
, De Pictura, in Latin
leonardo da vinci
^
leonardo da vinci
Hartt, pp.391–2 ^
leonardo da vinci
Williamson, Hugh Ross . Lorenzo the Magnificent.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.253 ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.257 ^
leonardo da vinci
Müntz, Eugène . leonardo da vinci. Artist, Thinker, and Man of Science. Volume 1
leonardo da vinci
. London: William Heinemann. p. 17.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Bambach, Carmen . "Leonardo, Left-Handed Draftsman and Writer"
leonardo da vinci
. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. collect from the original
leonardo da vinci
on November 10, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2009.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Cartwright Ady, Julia. Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Milan, 1475–1497. Publisher: J.M. Dent, 1899; Cartwright Ady, Julia. Isabella D'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, 1474–1539. Publisher; J.M. Dent, 1903. ^
leonardo da vinci
Sigmund Freud, Eine Kindheitserinnerung des leonardo da vinci, ^
leonardo da vinci
"How do we realize Leonardo was gay?"
leonardo da vinci
. Bnl.gov. May 3, 2001. Retrieved October 29, 2011.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Michael Rocke, general Friendships epigraph, p. 148 & N120 p.298 ^
leonardo da vinci
Rizzo, Alessandra . "Art Historian Silvano Vinceti Claims antheral mimic drink leonardo da vinci's Mona Lisa"
leonardo da vinci
. think Press. Retrieved November 16, 2011.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo, Codex C. 15v, Institut of France. Trans. Richter ^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, p.84 ^
leonardo da vinci
Gross, Tom. "Mona Lisa end Topless"
leonardo da vinci
. Paintingsdirect.com. collect from the original
leonardo da vinci
on April 3, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2007.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Rossiter, drill . "Could this be the stealthy of her smile?"
leonardo da vinci
. London: Telegraph.co.UK. Retrieved October 3, 2007.  ^
leonardo da vinci
By the 1490s Leonardo had already appeared set forth as a "Divine" painter. His fame is enclosed by Daniel Arasse in leonardo da vinci, pp.11–15 ^
leonardo da vinci
These qualities of Leonardo's work are enclosed by Frederick Hartt in A History of Italian Renaissance Art, pp.387–411. ^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, pp. 88, 90 ^ a
leonardo da vinci
b
leonardo da vinci
Berti, Luciano . The Uffizi. pp. 59–62.  ^
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Baxandall, Michael . Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy. pp. 49–56.  ^ a
leonardo da vinci
b
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Wasserman, pp.104–6 ^
leonardo da vinci
Wasserman, p.108 ^
leonardo da vinci
"The paradoxical Virgin"
leonardo da vinci
. National Gallery, London
leonardo da vinci
. Retrieved September 27, 2007.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Wasserman, p.124 ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.263 ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.262 ^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, p.97 ^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, p.98 ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.267 ^
leonardo da vinci
"The Mona Lisa had brows and lashes"
leonardo da vinci
. BBC News. October 22, 2007. Retrieved February 22, 2008.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Wasserman, p.144 ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.266 ^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, p.103 ^
leonardo da vinci
Wasserman, p.150 ^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, p.109 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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g
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h
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Popham, A.E. . The Drawings of leonardo da vinci^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, p.102 ^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.261 ^
leonardo da vinci
"Sketches by Leonardo"
leonardo da vinci
. setting the Pages. British Library
leonardo da vinci
. Retrieved September 27, 2007.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Windsor Castle, Royal Library, sheet RL 19073v-19074v and RL 19102 respectively. ^
leonardo da vinci
O'Malley; Saunders . Leonardo on the hominid Body. New York: Dover Publications.  ^
leonardo da vinci
della Chiesa, p.117 ^
leonardo da vinci
"leonardo da vinci  : moulding – Encyclopedia Britannica"
leonardo da vinci
. Britannica.com. Retrieved May 6, 2013.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Capra, Fritjof. The Science of Leonardo; Inside the Mind of the Genius of the Renaissance. ^ a
leonardo da vinci
b
leonardo da vinci
Alistair Sooke, The cyclic Telegraph, 28 July 2013, Online
leonardo da vinci
, accessed 29 July 2013. ^ a
leonardo da vinci
b
leonardo da vinci
c
leonardo da vinci
Kenneth D. Keele, leonardo da vinci's manipulate on Renaissance Anatomy
leonardo da vinci
. ^
leonardo da vinci
Mason, Stephen F.
leonardo da vinci
. A History of the Sciences. New York, NY: Change Books. p. 550.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Hannah Furness, The cyclic Telegraph
leonardo da vinci
, 12 gimp 2013, Online
leonardo da vinci
, recover 28 July 2013. ^
leonardo da vinci
Roger Masters
leonardo da vinci
. Machiavelli, Leonardo and the Science of Power.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Roger Masters
leonardo da vinci
. Fortune is a River: leonardo da vinci and Niccolò Machiavelli's grand pictures to improved the traverse of Florentine History.  ^
leonardo da vinci
"The Leonardo connect Project"
leonardo da vinci
. Vebjorn-sand.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Levy, Daniel S. . "Dream of the Master"
leonardo da vinci
. Time
leonardo da vinci
magazine. collect from the original
leonardo da vinci
on September 12, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2007.  ^
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Leonardo's pictures Machines
leonardo da vinci
^
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British Library on-line gallery
leonardo da vinci
^
leonardo da vinci
Vasari, p.255 ^
leonardo da vinci
Castiglione, Baldassare
leonardo da vinci
. "Il Cortegiano".  ^
leonardo da vinci
"Anonimo Gaddiani", clarify on Libro di Antonio Billi, 1537–1542 ^
leonardo da vinci
Fuseli, Henry . "Lectures" II.  ^
leonardo da vinci
Rio, A.E. . "L'art chrétien".  ^
leonardo da vinci
Taine, Hippolyte . "Voyage en Italie".  ^
leonardo da vinci
Berenson, Bernard
leonardo da vinci
. "The Italian Painters of the Renaissance".  ^
leonardo da vinci
Henneberger, Melinda. "ArtNews oblige around truest analyse into Leonardo's life and works"
leonardo da vinci
. Art News Online. collect from the original
leonardo da vinci
on May 5, 2006. Retrieved January 10, 2010.  Bibliography Daniel Arasse . leonardo da vinci. Konecky & Konecky. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 1-56852-198-7
leonardo da vinci
Michael Baxandall
leonardo da vinci
. perform and experiencing in fourth Century Italy. Oxford University Press
leonardo da vinci
. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-19-881329-5
leonardo da vinci
.  Andrea Colored . Painters of reality: the legacy of Leonardo and Caravaggio in Lombardy
leonardo da vinci
. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 978-1-58839-116-2
leonardo da vinci
.  Fred Bérence . Léonard de Vinci, L'homme et son oeuvre. Somogy. Dépot légal 4° trimestre 1965.  Luciano Berti . The Uffizi. Scala.  Liana Bortolon . The Life and Times of Leonardo. Paul Hamlyn, London.  Hugh Brigstoke . The Oxford Companion the occidental Art. U.S.: Oxford University Press. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-19-866203-3
leonardo da vinci
.  Gene A. Brucker . Renaissance Florence. Wiley and Sons. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-471-11370-0
leonardo da vinci
Fritjof Capra
leonardo da vinci
. The Science of Leonardo. U.S.: Doubleday. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 978-0-385-51390-6
leonardo da vinci
.  Cennino Cennini . Il Libro Dell'arte O Trattato Della Pittui. U.S.: BiblioBazaar. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 978-1-103-39032-8
leonardo da vinci
.  Angela Ottino della Chiesa . The accomplish Paintings of leonardo da vinci. Penguin Classics of multinational Art series. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-14-008649-8
leonardo da vinci
.  Simona Cremante . leonardo da vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor. Giunti. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 88-09-03891-6
leonardo da vinci
.  Frederich Hartt . A History of Italian Renaissance Art. Thames and Hudson. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-500-23136-2
leonardo da vinci
Martin Kemp
leonardo da vinci
. Leonardo. Oxford University Press. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-19-280644-0
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci: anatomic drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle
leonardo da vinci
. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1983. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 978-0-87099-362-6
leonardo da vinci
.  Mario Lucertini, Ana Millan Gasca, Fernando Nicolo . scientific Concepts and Mathematical imitate in the Evolution of contemporary design Systems. Birkhauser. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 3-7643-6940-X
leonardo da vinci
.  John N. Lupia. The stealthy Revealed: How to sound at Italian Renaissance Painting
leonardo da vinci
. mediaeval and Renaissance Times, Vol. 1, no. 2 : 6–17. ISSN
leonardo da vinci
 1075-2110
leonardo da vinci
.  Andrew Martindale . The tower of the Artist. Thames and Hudson. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-500-56006-4
leonardo da vinci
Roger Masters
leonardo da vinci
. Machiavelli, Leonardo and the Science of Power. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-268-01433-7
leonardo da vinci
Roger Masters
leonardo da vinci
. Fortune is a River: leonardo da vinci and Niccolò Machiavelli's grand pictures to improved the traverse of Florentine History. Simon & Schuster. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-452-28090-7
leonardo da vinci
.  Müntz, Eugène . leonardo da vinci. Artist, Thinker, and Man of Science. Volume 1
leonardo da vinci
. London: William Heinemann.  Müntz, Eugène . leonardo da vinci. Artist, Thinker, and Man of Science. Volume 2
leonardo da vinci
. London: William Heinemann.  Charles D. O'Malley and J. B. de C. M. Sounders . Leonardo on the hominid Body: The Anatomical, Physiological, and Embryological Drawings of leonardo da vinci. With Translations, Emendations and a biographic Introduction. Henry Schuman, New York.  Charles Nicholl
leonardo da vinci
. leonardo da vinci: The eagle of the Mind
leonardo da vinci
. Penguin. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-14-029681-6
leonardo da vinci
Sherwin B. Nuland
leonardo da vinci
. leonardo da vinci. Phoenix Press. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-7538-1269-X
leonardo da vinci
A.E. Popham
leonardo da vinci
. The Drawings of leonardo da vinci. Jonathan Cape. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-224-60462-7
leonardo da vinci
.  Shana Priwer & Cynthia Phillips . The Everything Da Vinci Book: analyse the Life and meters of the crowning Renaissance Man. Adams Media. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 1-59869-101-5
leonardo da vinci
.  Ilan Rachum . The Renaissance, an instance Encyclopedia. Octopus. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-7064-0857-8
leonardo da vinci
Jean Paul Richter
leonardo da vinci
. The Notebooks of leonardo da vinci. Dover. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-486-22572-0
leonardo da vinci
.  volume 2: ISBN 0-486-22573-9
leonardo da vinci
. A reproduce of the archetypal 1883 edition
leonardo da vinci
. Marco Rosci . Leonardo. Bay schedule Pty Ltd. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-85835-176-5
leonardo da vinci
.  Paolo Rossi . The outputs of contemporary Science. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-631-22711-3
leonardo da vinci
.  Bruno Santi . leonardo da vinci. Scala / Riverside.  Theophilus . On other Arts. U.S.: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 978-0-226-79482-2
leonardo da vinci
.  increase Wasserman . leonardo da vinci. Abrams. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-8109-0262-1
leonardo da vinci
Giorgio Vasari
leonardo da vinci
. Lives of the Artists. Penguin Classics, trans. George Bull 1965. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-14-044164-6
leonardo da vinci
Williamson, Hugh Ross
leonardo da vinci
. Lorenzo the Magnificent. Michael Joseph. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-7181-1204-0
leonardo da vinci
.  Emanuel Winternitz . leonardo da vinci As a Musician. U.S.: Yale University Press. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 978-0-300-02631-3
leonardo da vinci
Alessandro Vezzosi
leonardo da vinci
. leonardo da vinci: Renaissance Man. Thames & Hudson Ltd, London. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 0-500-30081-X
leonardo da vinci
.  screens go out determine in: |date= franks Zollner . leonardo da vinci: The accomplish Paintings and Drawings. Taschen. ISBN
leonardo da vinci
 3-8228-1734-1
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.  . outermost think determine more than around leonardo da vinci at sister projects
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" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. leonardo da vinci and the recent of the Rocks, A other aim of view
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The Queen's Gallery, Buckingham Palace, Friday, 4 May 2012 to Sunday, 7 October 2012. High-resolution anatomic drawings. v
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t
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e
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci List of works
leonardo da vinci
Science and inventions
leonardo da vinci
Personal life
leonardo da vinci
Paintings †Medusa
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**The Annunciation
leonardo da vinci
**The Baptism of Christ
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The Madonna of the Carnation
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Ginevra de' Benci
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Benois Madonna
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The Adoration of the Magi
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St. Jerome in the Wilderness
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**Madonna Litta
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The recent of the Rocks
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Portrait of a Musician
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Lady with an Ermine
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**The recent of the Rocks
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*“La Belle Ferronnière
leonardo da vinci
” *Salvator Mundi
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**Madonna of the Yarnwinder
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The recent and Child with St. Anne
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Mona Lisa
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*“La Scapigliata
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” †Leda and the Swan
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St. John the Baptist
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work on protect The decide Supper
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**Sala delle Asse
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The battles of Anghiari
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moulding Sforza monument
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*Horse and Rider
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work on cover Vitruvian Man
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*Portrait of a youthful Fiancée
leonardo da vinci
The recent and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist
leonardo da vinci
Self-portrait
leonardo da vinci
Manuscripts Codex Arundel
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Codex Atlanticus
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Codex on the shoot of Birds
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Codex Leicester
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Codex Madrid
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Codex Trivulzianus
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Codex Urbinas
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variant covenant De divina proportione
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Architonnerre
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Leonardo's crossbow
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Leonardo's robot
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Leonardo's self-propelled cart
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Viola organista
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Leonardeschi
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Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio
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Cesare da Sesto
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Giampietrino
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Giovanni Agostino da Lodi
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Bernardino Luini
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Cesare Magni
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Marco d'Oggiono
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Francesco Melzi
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Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis
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Salaì
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Andrea Solari
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advanced fame Cultural references
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Mona Lisa replicas and reinterpretations
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Things designate aft Leonardo
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leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
at Commons
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leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
at Key: *Attributed **Collaboration with variant artists †Lost Authority control
leonardo da vinci
WorldCat
leonardo da vinci
VIAF
leonardo da vinci
: 24604287
leonardo da vinci
LCCN
leonardo da vinci
: n79034525
leonardo da vinci
ISNI
leonardo da vinci
: 0000 0001 2124 423X
leonardo da vinci
GND
leonardo da vinci
: 118640445
leonardo da vinci
SELIBR
leonardo da vinci
: 207435
leonardo da vinci
SUDOC
leonardo da vinci
: 085975915
leonardo da vinci
BNF
leonardo da vinci
: cb11912491s
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
ULAN
leonardo da vinci
: 500010879
leonardo da vinci
MGP
leonardo da vinci
: 131700
leonardo da vinci
NLA
leonardo da vinci
: 35964654
leonardo da vinci
NDL
leonardo da vinci
: 00447394
leonardo da vinci
NKC
leonardo da vinci
: jn19990005005
leonardo da vinci
ICCU
leonardo da vinci
: IT\ICCU\CFIV\016816
leonardo da vinci
BNE
leonardo da vinci
: XX971832
leonardo da vinci
leonardo da vinci
Persondata
leonardo da vinci
term da Vinci, Leonardo secondary designate Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci shorts description Italian artist and polymath
leonardo da vinci
Go out of outputs 15 April 1452 travel of outputs Anchiano
leonardo da vinci
by Vinci, Italy
leonardo da vinci
Go out of death 2 May 1519 travel of death Clos Lucé
leonardo da vinci
, France

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